Советское типовое домостроение – явление уникальное, хотя и противоречивое. На него возложили ответственность за создание самой однообразной жилой среды в истории человечества и сделали олицетворением отчужденности и подавления личности. Осуществленная в постсталинскую эпоху программа жилищного строительства стала самой масштабной в современной мировой истории архитектуры. В то же время советское типовое домостроение имело колоссальное социальное значение, предоставив десяткам миллионов семей собственные квартиры. Из-за своего колоссального масштаба оно стало отдельным таинственным миром со своими мифами и секретами, достижениями и неудачами. Настало время для критической оценки этого амбициозного проекта. Авторы попытались определить самые важные серии жилищного строительства, разработанные и применявшиеся на всей территории СССР — от Калининграда до Владивостока.
Эта книга посвящена творчеству российского архитектора Галины Андреевны Балашовой. В издании представлена уникальная коллекция проектов для Советской космической программы, которая включает технические чертежи, эскизы и схемы космических кораблей серии «Союз», Лунного корабля, станций «Салют» и «Мир». Подробно рассмотрены и работы Балашовой в области графического дизайна: проекты оформления многоразового орбитального корабля «Буран», эмблема экспериментальной программы «Союз — Аполлон», вымпелы и медали космических миссий. Движимая постоянным стремлением к соразмерности и красоте, Балашова наделила человеческой душой высокотехнологичный мир ракет и систем жизнеобеспечения. Благодаря работам талантливого архитектора в советской архитектурной истории появилась новая глава: «Архитектура для космоса». Сегодня достижениями Галины Балашовой интересуются специалисты и любители архитектуры и дизайна по всему миру.
AMSTERDAM – Analysing the winning projects of this year’s Frame Awards, the May/June issue of Frame reports what’s happening in interior design today. Stores are transformed into destinations, shows achieve more with less, hospitality projects offer genre-bending experiences and offices reject the ‘playground’-typology in favour of human-centric interior design.
Health aids go high-tech. Inclusive items enable the blind. Architects join the ranks of Prada’s fashion designers. Discover new directions in the world of products.
The Challenge: Design for Future Tourism
In the lead-up to each issue, Frame challenges emerging designers to answer a topical question with a future-forward concept. The tourism industry is one the world’s fastest-growing economic sectors. An article shared on World Economic Forum’s website reported a figure of nearly 1.2 billion international tourists in 2015, compared with 25 million in 1950. The number is expected to reach 1.8 billion by 2030. What will travel look like by then? What will tomorrow’s tourists need?
Carlos Cruz-Diez makes colour an event. Naoto Fukasawa reconsiders the presence of products. Maarten Baas traces his career-making moves. Meet the people. Get their perspectives……………………………
From Outer Envelope to Interior Space
Facades must solve many tasks at once. Not only do they give buildings a face and character, they must assert themselves in the cityscape and fit into the surroundings. They keep out rain, wind and cold, while protecting against heat and direct sun. The outer shell is also decisive for interiors. It contributes to a pleasant indoor climate, directs our gaze outwards through its openings, controls the entry of natural light, and contributes to our well-ventilated wellbeing with a balcony, terrace or loggia.
For our May issue, Julia Liese compiled extraordinary examples of facades on new buildings in places such as Berlin, Copenhagen, Madrid and Seoul, showing a variety of ways architects are designing buildings that fit into the urban context and respond to climatic or functional conditions – as residential towers, town halls, sports halls or office buildings.
In Nordhavn, Copenhagen, the shimmering metal facade of The Silo residential building breaks into glittering fragments that reflect on the water’s surface. Our documentation of this project shows the clever way in which Danish architectural firm Cobe covered an existing concrete silo with a new curtain wall facade in the course of its conversion, with detailed photos, plans and construction details. This is complemented by our essay which presents current examples of metal facades with very different functions. Author Roland Pawlitschko looks at unusual and even radical solutions that respond in a variety of ways to specific requirements while ensuring translucency and transparency.
Technology is another aspect of the facade, and a lot has happened in this realm in recent years. In our technology feature Rob Nijsse, Vincent Kersten and Ronald Wenting take a closer look at facades used in OMA projects. They examine the structural importance of corrugated glass as a facade material, and explain the technical details involved in the development of these outer shells.
In this issue you will also find the special green section. Jakob Schoof presents a selection of projects with successful plus energy concepts.
Affordable Housing and Its Qualities
Scarcely a week goes by without some new headline appearing about the disaster on the housing market. Alone in Germany, roughly a million more homes are needed today. Of the four million social dwellings that still existed at the end of the 1980s, only one and a quarter million are left nowadays. In many cases, affordable housing space is hardly to be found, and accommodation in many towns and cities is more expensive than ever. Housing has become a field of speculation for investors with great prospects for profit.
What has happened over recent decades? Where is the enthusiasm with which politicians and architects implemented extensive developments in the 1960s and 70s like the Märkisches Viertel or the Gropiusstadt – both planned as new homes for 50,000 Berlin citizens? Why has the state largely withdrawn from the social housing field, and why are so many local authorities neglecting their responsibilities to provide sufficient affordable living space?
In the current, April journal, we have addressed these and other ticklish questions. With the present issue of DETAIL we wish to show economical forms of housing and illustrate the fact that, despite the plight of the housing market, there are positive trends as well — with solutions that point a way to the future for urban planning and promotion and the architectural qualities of affordable living space. For precisely these qualities are ignored or neglected in times of exploding rents.
In his essay on publicly sponsored housing in Vienna, Dietmar Steiner describes the tradition and the future of dwelling in his city, which is regarded as a model. Our documentation articles show low-cost housing developments that were implemented with various support mechanisms, including cooperatives, or as communal projects and in private-public partnership. Examples from Paris, London and Zurich show quite clearly that – despite tight budgets – means of realizing unusual architectural qualities exist that are of benefit to residents in everyday life. Communal zones, planted rear courtyards and living spaces bathed in light are a question of planning which, in view of reduced construction costs, set certain priorities and therefore have to be given greater consideration. In view of the present housing disaster, architects bear responsibility for this. The role they play is crucial because, with their concepts, they are in a position to point a path to the future.
Whether they are hiding and playing games or learning, chatting and relaxing, children and young people love exploring new places and interpreting them according to their mood. They are masters in the appropriation of space and experts in their surroundings. Berlin-based architecture firm Die Baupiloten works with this unfiltered knowledge. In an interview practice founder Susanne Hofmann explains how real-life architecture emerges from the discussion of atmospheric qualities and seemingly utopian wishful thinking and looks at what contributes to the success of participatory design processes (page 56). Integration and identification are key concepts in day care centres and schools. In addition to creative opportunities for development, current pedagogical approaches concentrate on promoting greater autonomy and the acquisition of social skills. The influence of these trends on interior design is the focus of this issue dedicated to the theme of ‘Playing and Learning’.
We take a look at the memorable colour scheme of a special school in Ghent (page 26), we show how a meandering shelf structure becomes an integral part of a Madrid language school’s spatial design (page 38) and we visit the play and learning environment of an Austrian kindergarten (page 32).
On the Great Stage
Approximately one year ago, the Elbphilharmonie in Hamburg opened its doors for the first time. With the advent of this new landmark on the River Elbe in North Germany, one registers an increase in the general esteem for stage structures. Nowadays their cultural significance is no longer called in question; it is appreciated instead. In the public perception, buildings of this kind everywhere have assumed a status that was formerly reserved for museums.
In the March issue of Detail, we present concepts for auditoriums and open-air theatres, congress centres and large opera houses. The one thing they all have in common, of course, is a stage – sometimes larger, sometimes smaller and sometimes even variable in size. The examples we include here, from Swabia to North Jutland, from Canada and China, allow a comparison of typological aspects; for example, questions of access and circulation and the layout of the individual halls. In the two longer “Process” contributions, which describe the Music Forum in Bochum and the Auditorium and Congress Centre in Plasencia, Spain, we investigate concrete issues involving the acoustics and planning.
Stage structures are public places where people gather and feel at home. In Bochum, Bez+Kock Architects have succeeded in reactivating a 19th-century neo-Gothic church for this purpose. And in the Extremadura in Spain, a new auditorium by José Selgas and Lucía Cano has caught the attention of the public for the first time in this context in a remote location where such an audience did not previously exist. These, too, are aspects with which we have been keenly concerned in the editorial team.
This monograph presents the work carried out by the office CC Arquitectos from 2011 to 2018, founded by the Mexican architect Manuel Cervantes Céspedes in 2004
In addition to his works and projects, the book includes an interview prepared by Fernanda Canales and two critical essays about his architecture written by Juhani Pallasmaa and Edward R. Burian.